Anthropomotron

Version 2.1.1

Welcome to Anthropomotron
Please select an option from the menu to the left.
Back Info

Stature

  • Choose a reference sample below to see what criteria are available. Scroll to the bottom to read about the chosen reference sample.
  • Juvenile Long Bone Length Method
  • Diaphyseal length
  • years
  • Ages 0.5 to 11.5 years
  • Choose a reference sample below to see what criteria are available. See the Background section to read about the chosen reference sample.
  • Adult Long Bone Length Method
  • years
  • Choose a reference sample below.
  • Anatomical (Full Body) Method
    • Age Factor:
    • Ageyears
    • Cranial Height: cm
    • C2 Height: cm
    • C3 Height: cm
    • C4 Height: cm
    • C5 Height: cm
    • C6 Height: cm
    • C7 Height: cm
    • T1 Height: cm
    • T2 Height: cm
    • T3 Height: cm
    • T4 Height: cm
    • T5 Height: cm
    • T6 Height: cm
    • T7 Height: cm
    • T8 Height: cm
    • T9 Height: cm
    • T10 Height: cm
    • T11 Height: cm
    • T12 Height: cm
    • L1 Height: cm
    • L2 Height: cm
    • L3 Height: cm
    • L4 Height: cm
    • L5 Height: cm
    • S1 Height: cm
    • Left Femur Length: cm
    • Right Femur Length: cm
    • Left Tibia Length: cm
    • Right Tibia Length: cm
    • Left Talus and Calcaneus Height: cm
    • Right Talus and Calcaneus Height: cm
Back Info

Body Mass

  • Method:
  • Choose one of three methods of mass estimation from the menu above. On smaller devices, lengthy menu items need to be viewed in landscape mode.
  • Femoral Head Diameter Method:
  • mm
  • Estimated Body Mass:


  • Confidence Interval:



  • Technique:

    Ruff and colleagues describe the measurement as the "superoinferor breadth of the femoral head," (2012:604).


  • Sources:

    This page uses sources from Ruff et al. (1991), Auerbach and Ruff (2004), and Ruff et al. (2012).

  • Stature and Bi-Iliac Breadth Method:
  • cm
  • cm
  • Estimated Body Mass:


  • Technique:

    Bi-iliac breadth is the maximum mediolateral breadth (Ruff 2007).


  • Sources:

    This page uses sources from Ruff et al. (2005).

  • Femoral Metaphysis Breadth Method (Subadults):
  • mm
  • Log-Transform
  • years
  • Estimated Body Mass:


  • Confidence Interval:


  • Technique:

    Use "the maximum mediolateral breadth of the distal metaphyseal surface of the femoral diaphysis... [t]aken between the most medially and laterally projecting points on the metaphyseal surface, close to but not necessarily perpendicular to the long axis of the shaft," (Ruff 2007:699)


  • Sources:

    This page uses sources from Ruff (2007) and Robbins Schug et al. (2013).

  • Femoral Head Breadth Method (Subadults):
  • mm
  • Log-Transform
  • years
  • Estimated Body Mass:


  • Confidence Interval:


  • Technique:

    The maximum superioinferior femoral head breadth was used "perpendicular to the femoral head-neck axis," (Ruff et al., 2007:699).

  • Sources:

    This page uses sources from Ruff (2007) and Robbins Schug et al. (2013).

  • Bi-Iliac Breadth and Long Bone Length Method (Mid-Teens):
  • mm
  • mm
  • Estimated Body Mass:


  • Technique:

    Bi-iliac breadth is the maximum mediolateral breadth (Ruff 2007). Long bone lengths are the macimum, including the epiphyses.


  • Sources:

    This page uses sources from Ruff (2007).

  • Femoral Second Moments of Area (J) (Subadults):
  • mm4
  • mm
  • mm
  • mm
  • mm4
  • mm4
  • years
  • Estimated Body Mass:


  • Technique:

    Measurements were taken at 45.5% diaphyseal length (Robbins et al., 2010)

  • Sources:

    This page uses sources from Robbins et al. (2010) and Robbins Schug et al. (2013).

  • First Metatarsal Method:
  • mm
  • mm
  • Estimated Body Mass:


  • Prediction Interval:


  • Technique:

    The DPP is "the greatest dorsoplantar diameter with the arms of the calipers oriented parallel to the diaphysis" and the MLD is measured "on the plantar side of the head," (De Groote and Humphrey 2011:626-627)

  • Sources:

    This page uses sources from De Groote and Humphrey (2011).

Back Info

MNI and MLNI

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About

Anthropomotron (Mobile/Web) version 2.1.1
Introduction
Welcome to Anthropomotron! I made this website/app to consolidate many of the anthropometric tools used in biological anthropology. This app wouldn't have been possible without the work of the many researchers cited on the Sources page. In adding their contributions to this app, there is the chance that I have made an error in programming. If you're using this app for a matter of serious importance it is a good idea to confirm the calculation with the original source, especially if the estimate is wildly off or too good to be true.
General Instructions
Choose the measurement you want to measure from the main screen (ie. stature, body mass, or MNI). Generally, move from the top of the page downward filling in values and choosing options as they appear. The estimate should automatically be calculated near the bottom of the page.

Change Log

 

2.1.1 2015 update

 

General

Stature

Change Log

 

2.1 stature and fixes

 

General

Stature

 

2.0 Stature Update & More!

 

General

Stature

Body Mass

MNI

 

1.5.1 Bug Fixes

 

Body Mass

 


1.5 Additions to Body Mass Estimation

 

Femoral Head


Juvenile Femoral Head
Juvenile Femoral Distal Metatarsal
Bi-Iliac Breadth and Sections
J
First Metatarsal

1.0.1 Fixed crash on startup in Android version


1.0 Initial Release

Acknowledgements
Besides the researchers whose work is used by this app, several others had a role in the development of Anthropomotron. Meg Halley introduced me to JQT, which started this whole thing. Derek Brillon and Shilo Bender were my Android beta testers. Bob Benfer provided valuable advice on all issues anthropological for over a decade and counting. Various researchers have offered me invaluable suggestions and support and I thank them all for seeing the potential in this project. Anthropomotron was made using Xcode, JQT, PhoneGap, Dreamweaver, and Eclipse.
By Keith Chan, Chantastisoft, 2012 - 2015.
I hope you find this app useful, interesting, and entertaining. Let me know if you have any comments, issues, suggestions, or umbrages at: chekeichan@gmail.com
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Sources

Adams BJ, Konigsberg LW. 2004. Estimation of the most likely number of individuals from commingled human skeletal remains. Am J Phys Anthropol. 125:138-151.


Auerbach BM, Ruff CB. 2004. Human body mass estimation: A comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods. Am J Phys Anthropol. 125:331-342.


Auerbach BM, Ruff CB. 2010. Stature estimation formulae for indigenous North American populations. Am J Phys Anthropol. 141:190-207.


del Angel A, Cisneros HB. 2004. Technical note: Modification of regression equatiions used to estimate stature in Mesoamerican skeletal remains. Am J Phys Anthropol. 125:264-265.


Bidmos MA. 2008. Stature reconstruction using fragmentary femora in South Africans of European descent. J Forensic Sci. 53:1044-1048.


Fully G. 1956. Une nouvelle méthode de détermination de la taille. Ann Med Legale. 35:266-273.


Genovés S. 1967. Proportionality of the long bones and their relation to stature among Mesoamericans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 26:67-78.


Grine FE, Jungers WL, Tobias PV, Pearson OM. 1995. Fossil Homo femur from Berg Aukas, northern Namibia. Am J Phys Anthropol. 97:151-85.


De Groote I, Humphrey LT. 2011. Body mass and stature estimation based on the first metatarsal in humans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 144:625-32.


Jantz RJ, Hunt DR, Meadows L. 1995. The measure and mismeasure of the tibia: Implications for stature estimation. J Forensic Sci. 40:758-761.


Lee, J., Kim, Y. S., Lee, U., Park, D., Jeong, Y., Lee, N. S., . . . Han, S. (2014). Stature estimation from partial measurements and maximum length of lower limb bones in koreans. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46(3), 330-338.


McHenry HM. 1992. Body size and proportions in early Hominids. Am J Phys Anthropol. 87:407-431.


Olivier G. 1976. The stature of Australopithecines. J Hum Evol. 5:529-534.


Ousley S. 1995. Should we estimate biological or forensic stature? J Forensic Sci. 40:768-773.


Pearson K. 1899. IV. Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution.- --V. On the reconstruction of stature in prehistoric races. Philos T R Soc Lond. 192:167-244.


Pomeroy E, Stock JT. 2012. Estimation of stature and body mass from the skeleton among coastal and mid-altitude Andean populations. Am J Phys Anthropol. 147:264-79.


Raxter MH, Auerbach BM, Ruff CB. 2006. Revision of the Fully technique for estimating statures. Am J Phys Anthropol. 130:374-84.


Raxter MH, Ruff CB, Auerbach BM. 2007. Technical note: revised Fully stature estimation technique. Am J Phys Anthropol. 133:817-818.


Raxter MH, Ruff CB, Azab A, Erfan M, Soliman M, El-Sawaf A. 2008. Stature estimation in ancient Egyptians: a new technique based on anatomical reconstruction of stature. Am J Phys Anthropol. 136:147-155.


Robbins G, Sciulli PW, Blatt SH. 2010. Estimating body mass in subadult human skeletons. Am J Phys Anthropol. 143:146-50.

 

Robbins Schug G, Gupta S, Cowgill LW, Sciulli PW, Blatt SH. 2013. Panel regression formulas for estimating stature and body mass from immature human skeletons: a statistical approach without reference to specific age estimates. J Archaeol Sci. 40:3076-3086.


Ruff C. 2007. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains. Am J Phys Anthropol. 133:698-716.


Ruff CB, Holt BM, Niskanen M, Sladék V, Berner M, Garofalo E, Garvin HM, Hora M, Maijanen H, Niinimäki S, Salo K, Schuplerová E, Tompkins D. 2012. Stature and body mass estimation from skeletal remains in the European Holocene. Am J Phys Anthropol. 148:601-17.


Ruff CB, Niskanen M, Junno J, Jamison P. 2005. Body mass prediction from stature and bi-iliac breadth in two high latitude populations, with application to earlier higher latitude humans. J Hum Evol. 48:381-392.


Ruff CB, Scott WW, Liu AY. 1991. Articular and diaphyseal remodeling of the proximal femur with changes in body mass in adults. Am J Phys Anthropol. 86:397-413.


Ruff CB, Trinkaus E, Holliday TW. 1997. Body mass and encephalization in Pleistocene Homo. Nature. 387:173-176.


Sciulli PW, Giesen MJ. 1993. Brief communication: an update on stature estimation in prehistoric Native Americans of Ohio. Am J Phys Anthropol. 92:395-399.


Sjøvold, T. (1990). Estimation of stature from long bones utilizing the line of organic correlation. Human Evolution, 5(5), 431-447.


Trotter M, Gleser GC. 1952. Estimation of stature from long bones of American Whites and Negroes. Am J Phys Anthropol. 10:463-514.


Trotter M, Gleser GC. 1958. A re-evaluation of estimation of stature based on measurements of stature taken during life and of long bones after death. Am J Phys Anthropol. 16:79-123.


Trotter M, Gleser GC. 1977. Corrigenda to "estimation of stature from long limb bones of American Whites and Negroes," American Journal Physical Anthropology (1952). Am J Phys Anthropol. 47:355-356.

 

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Stature Info

 

Estimation of stature from long bone measurements or multiple skeletal measurements is one of the core tools in forensic anthropology. Choose one of the techniques from the Method menu. Instructions and underlying formulae for each section is below. The instructions and equations used to estimate body mass are in the following subheadings. (You may have to rotate your device to portrait mode to fully see certain tables):
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Body Mass Info

Several elements, or combinations of elements, can be used to estimate the body mass of an individual. The stability of the femoral head against response to external forces allow it to be a useful predictor of body mass (Ruff 1991). The bi-iliac breadth of the pelvis was also found to be correlated with body mass (Ruff et al., 1997). The previous version of Anthropomotron used formulae from Ruff et al. (1997). This version uses updated forumulae from Ruff et al. (2005). Ruff (2007) also provides various methods of estimating body mass for juveniles. Robbins and colleagues (2010) and Robbins Schug and colleagues (2013) created forumulae to estimate mass using the polar second moment of area of the femoral shaft (J) and made new ways to estimate body mass using the width of the distal femoral metaphysis and femoral head diameter. Use the Method menu to choose among the available types of body mass estimation. The instructions and equations used to estimate body mass are in the following subheadings. (you may have to rotate your device to see certain tables):

 

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MNI Info

MNI (Minumim Number of Individuals) and MLNI (Most Likely Number of Individuals) techniques are used to estimate the number of individuals that constitute a skeletal collection. These methods are taken from Adams and Konigsberg (2004). L represents the bone elements from the left side, R represents the right, and P is the number of confirmed bone pairs found.
Adams and Konigsberg (2004) suggest that the MLNI should be used as a less biased alternative to standard NMI techniques. The original article advocates the calculation of highest density regions (HDR) to provide an estimated confidence interval. Unfortunately the calculation of HDRs is beyond the scope of this program. Visit http://konig.la.utk.edu/MLNI.html for the author's own automation of the MLNI.
Procedure:
  1. Enter the Number of Left Elements of a bone.
  2. Enter the Number of Right Elements of the same type of bone.
  3. Enter the Number of Element Pairs of the same type of bone.
  4. The four calculations will be presented in the region below.
If nothing is entered, the value will be calculated as zero.
Maximum (L,R): The greater number of a certain bone element on the left or right side.

L + R - P: The number of confirmed pairs subtracted from the number of unpaired bones on each side.

(L + R) /2 : The average number of right and left elements.

(L + 1)(R + 1) / (P + 1)) - 1: The MLNI adapts an estimator called the Lincoln Index (Chapman, 1951; Adams and Konigsberg, 2004). Only the integer of the solution is kept.